skip to content »

ec-clan.ru

Automobiles revolutionized dating 20th century

Since many of the authors have little interest in the history of technology outside of advertising black contributions to it, their stories tend to be fraught with misunderstandings, wishful thinking, or fanciful embellishments with no historical basis.

Trucks with mechanically refrigerated cargo spaces appeared on the roads at least as early as the late 1920s (see the proof). In 1869, a 22-year-old George Westinghouse received US patent #88929 for a brake device operated by compressed air, and in the same year organized the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. He received the first of many patents in 1906 (US patent #808897, for the "Apparatus for Treating Air"). In 1900 Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin's first rigid-framed dirigible took to the air.Evidence of modern peanut butter comes from US patent #306727 issued to Marcellus Gilmore Edson of Montreal, Quebec in 1884, for a process of milling roasted peanuts between heated surfaces until the peanuts reached "a fluid or semi-fluid state." As the product cooled, it set into what Edson described as "a consistency like that of butter, lard, or ointment." In 1890, George A. Louis, manufactured peanut butter and sold it out of barrels. Carver's work to improve regional farming practices was not of pioneering scientific importance and had little demonstrable impact.To see how Carver gained "a popular reputation far transcending the significance of his accomplishments," read Mackintosh's excellent article George Washington Carver: The Making of a Myth.From 1880 onward, countless patents were issued for innovations in filament design and manufacture (Edison had over 50 of them). Williams repaired a wound not in the heart muscle itself, but in the sac surrounding it, the pericardium.Neither of Latimer's two filament-related patents in 18 were among the most important innovations, nor did they make the light bulb last longer, nor is there reason to believe they were adopted outside Hiram Maxim's company where Latimer worked at the time. This operation was not the first of its type: Henry Dalton of St.Unfortunately, some of the errors and exaggerations have acquired an illusion of credibility by repetition in mainstream outlets, especially during Black History Month (see examples for the traffic light and ironing board). The first known traffic signal appeared in London in 1868 near the Houses of Parliament.

When myths go unchallenged for too long, they begin to eclipse the truth. Although this page does not cover every dubious invention claim floating around out there, it should at least serve as a warning never to take any such claim for granted. Designed by JP Knight, it featured two semaphore arms and two gas lamps.

21, 1885 issue of Scientific American as "perhaps the first ever sent to and from a moving train." Phelps remained at the forefront in developing the technology and by the end of 1887 already held 14 US patents on his system.

He joined a team led by Thomas Edison, who had been working on his "grasshopper telegraph" for trains, and together they constructed on the Lehigh Valley Railroad one of the only induction telegraph systems ever put to commercial use.

Each item below is listed with its supposed black originator beneath it along with the year it was supposedly invented, followed by something about the real origin of the invention or at least an earlier instance of it. The earliest electric traffic lights include Lester Wire's two-color version set up in Salt Lake City circa 1912, James Hoge's system (US patent #1,251,666) installed in Cleveland by the American Traffic Signal Company in 1914, and William Potts' 4-way red-yellow-green lights introduced in Detroit beginning in 1920.

New York City traffic towers began flashing three-color signals also in 1920. Research by Barry Mackintosh, who served as bureau historian for the National Park Service (which manages the G. Carver National Monument), demonstrated the following: Most of Carver's peanut and sweet potato creations were either unoriginal, impractical, or of uncertain effectiveness.

(He was not hired by Edison's company until 1884, primarily as a draftsman and an expert witness in patent litigations). Louis performed a nearly identical operation two years earlier, with the patient fully recovering.