Radioactive dating technology
The lifetime of a radioactive substance is not affected in any way by any physical or chemical conditions to which the substance may be subjected.The rate of disintegration of a radioactive substance is commonly designated by its half-lifehalf-life,measure of the average lifetime of a radioactive substance (see radioactivity) or an unstable subatomic particle.
They move at the speed of light and have a very short wavelength (or high frequency); thus they are a type of electromagnetic radiation (see gamma radiationgamma radiation,high-energy photons emitted as one of the three types of radiation resulting from natural radioactivity.neutrino[Ital.,=little neutral (particle)], elementary particle with no electric charge and a very small mass emitted during the decay of certain other particles.The neutrino was first postulated in 1930 by Wolfgang Pauli in order to maintain the law of conservation of energy..... The electron is immediately ejected from the nucleus, and the net result is an increase of 1 in the atomic number of the nucleus but no change in the mass number.nucleus,in physics, the extremely dense central core of an atom.The Nature of the Nucleus Composition Atomic nuclei are composed of two types of particles, protons and neutrons, which are collectively known as nucleons......actinide series,a series of radioactive metallic elements in Group 3 of the periodic table.
Members of the series are often called actinides, although actinium (at. 89) is not always considered a member of the series......
radioactive waste,material containing the unusable radioactive byproducts of the scientific, military, and industrial applications of nuclear energy.
Since its radioactivity presents a serious health hazard (see radiation sickness), disposing of such material is a great problem......
The radiation produced during radioactivity is predominantly of three types, designated as alpha, beta, and gamma rays.
These types differ in velocity, in the way in which they are affected by a magnetic field, and in their ability to penetrate or pass through matter.
The alpha decay reduces the atomic number of the nucleus by 2 and the mass number by 4: Beta rays are more penetrating than alpha rays, move at a very high speed, and are deflected considerably by a magnetic field in a direction that indicates a negative charge; analysis shows that beta rays are high-speed electrons (see beta particlebeta particle,one of the three types of radiation resulting from natural radioactivity.