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Relative dating method of evaluating geologic time

E12.6: Early Earth was very different from today's planet. Students will have difficulty with the concept of geologic time, especially the concept of deep time. Fossils can be purchased from scientific supply houses, as well as collected locally in some places.Evidence for one-celled forms of life (bacteria) extends back more than 3.5 billion years. They will see terms such as ancient and relate that to historical ancient time, e.g. Students of all ages may hold the view that the world was always as it is now, or that any changes that have occurred must have been sudden and comprehensive. In the investigation described here, the students conduct an inquiry to answer an apparently simple question: Do two slightly different fossils represent an evolutionary trend?

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Common Core Standards The Common Core State Standards Initiative online Math. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. The investigation begins with a task that students originally perceive as easy-describing the characteristics of two brachiopods to see if change has occurred. D., gives each student two similar but slightly different fossils and asks the students if they think an evolutionary trend can be discerned. asks for a justification of each answer and gently challenges the students' responses by posing questions such as: "How do you know? How do you know that the differences are not normal variations in this species?page 190 AAAS Atlas: Volume 1 Cluster: Evolution of Life Maps: Biological Evolution (BE) pp 80-81 Natural Selection (NS) pp 82-83 Volume 2 Cluster: Historical Perspectives Maps: Moving the Continents (10DE) pp78-79 Explaining Evolution (10H) pp 84-85 Benchmarks of Science Literacy (9.3.1.3.1) Thousands of layers of sedimentary rock confirm the long history of the changing surface of the earth and the changing life forms whose remains are found in successive layers.The youngest layers are not always found on top, because of folding, breaking, and uplift of layers.pages 189-190 Evidence for one-celled forms of life-the bacteria-extends back more than 3.5 billion years.The evolution of life caused dramatic changes in the composition of the earth's atmosphere, which did not originally contain oxygen.page 185 Content Standard D Interactions among the solid earth, the oceans, the atmosphere, and organisms have resulted in the ongoing evolution of the earth system.

We can observe some changes such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on a human time scale, but many processes such as mountain building and plate movements take place over hundreds of millions of years.

L8.8: All organisms cause changes in the environment where they live. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. The investigation in this example centers on the use of fossils to develop concepts about variation of characteristics in a population, evolution-including indicators of past environments and changes in those environments, the role of climate in biological adaptation, and use of geological data.

Some of these changes are detrimental to the organisms or other organisms, whereas others are beneficial. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. High-school students generally exhibit interest in fossils and what the fossils indicate about organisms and their habitats.

10D/H2 (9.3.1.3.2) Prior to the 1700s, many considered the earth to be just a few thousand years old.

By the 1800s, scientists were starting to realize that the earth was much older even though they could not determine its exact age.

9.3.1.3.2 1.6 Earth scientists construct models of Earth and its processes that best explain the available geological evidence.