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The Elymi, too, may have distant origins from outside Italy, in the Aegean Sea area.
Sicilian politics was intertwined with politics in Greece itself, leading Athens, for example, to mount the disastrous Sicilian Expedition in 415 BC during the Peloponnesian War.The history of Sicily has been influenced by numerous ethnic groups.It has seen Sicily sometimes controlled by external powers — Roman, Vandal and Ostrogoth, Byzantine and Islamic — but also experiencing important periods of independence, as under the Siceliotes of Greek origin and later as the autonomous Emirate then Kingdom of Sicily.In the following centuries the Kingdom entered into the personal union with the Spaniard and Bourbon crowns, preserving however its substantial independence until 1816.Although today part of the Republic of Italy, it has its own distinct culture.As a result of the dynastic succession, then, the Kingdom passed into the hands of the Hohenstaufen.
At the end of the 13th century, with the War of the Sicilian Vespers between the crowns of Anjou and Aragon, the island passed to the latter.
Within a century, we find major Phoenician settlements at Soloeis (Solunto), present day Palermo and Motya (an island near present-day Marsala).
As Phoenician Carthage grew in power, these settlements came under its direct control.
Complex urban settlements become increasingly evident from around 1300 BC.
From the 11th century BC, Phoenicians begin to settle in western Sicily, having already started colonies on the nearby parts of North Africa.
Palermo was a Carthaginian city, founded in the 8th century BC, named Zis or Sis ("Panormos" to the Greeks).