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During the period of turmoil between the supporters of King Henry III and the barons who sought to curtail his power, the town was the scene of a major battle in 1233, in which the king's forces were routed by the troops of Richard Marshal, Earl of Pembroke.Later, the castle was extended by Henry's son Edmund Crouchback, after he became Earl of Lancaster in 1267.

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The only evidence of continuing settlement at Monmouth is a record of a 7th-century church, at an unknown location within the town, dedicated to the Welsh saint Cadoc.A new castle was built at Monmouth, holding commanding views over the surrounding area from a sound defensive site and exerting control over both river crossings and the area's important resources of farmland, timber and minerals.Initially it would have been a motte and bailey castle, later rebuilt in stone, and refortified and developed over time.Charters from the period refer to the town's trade in iron, and to forges making use of local ore and charcoal.The cinders produced by the forges formed heaps, and were used in building foundations; the name of Cinderhill Street in Overmonnow dates from this period.Monmouth's population in the 2011 census was 10,508, rising from 8,877 in 2001.

The town was the site of a small Roman fort, Blestium, and became established after the Normans built a castle here after 1067.

In 1536, it became the county town of Monmouthshire.

Monmouth later became a tourist centre at the heart of the Wye Valley, as well as a market town.

Excavations undertaken by the Monmouth Archaeological Society on sites along Monnow Street have uncovered a wealth of information about the early history of the town.

Indeed, the Council for British Archaeology have designated Monmouth as one of the top ten towns in Britain for archaeology.

Its medieval stone gated bridge is the only one of its type remaining in Britain.